. advantages of polymers by on prezi. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range and in the scope of this optimum range maximum benefit is derived. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. The goal of any drug delivery system is to supply a therapeutic amount of drug to the proper site in the body to achieve without delay, and then maintain the required drug constant. They improve the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs and hence improve skin penetration of drugs. Polymers are the backbone of a pharmaceutical drug delivery system as they A strategy that could allow active targeting requires the surface fictionalization of drug carriers along with ligands that are selectively acknowledged by receptors on the surface of the cells of interest. March 25, 2019. Some drugs can be can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all if there concentration is above or below this range. The surfactant coating on the carrier is very thin and hence hydration of this coating will allow multilamellar vesicles to form as the carrier dissolves (Bangham et al., 1965 and Yoshioka et al., 1994). The vesicles may act as a depot and hence releasing the drug in a controlled manner. Biology These advantages are following: Good specific strength and stiffness Part integration Easy of processing Low density Light weight Relatively low cost flexiblity 18. The vesicles were stored in glass vials at room temperature or kept in refrigerator (4oC) for 3 months. The vesicle suspension is water-based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms. Freeze thawing (keeping vesicles suspension at -20°C for 24 hrs and then heating to ambient temperature) of niosomes increases the vesicle diameter. POLYMERS for CDDS--class slides (1).pdf - Polymers Introduction classification properties advantages and application of polymers in the formulation of. desorption of surface-bound /adsorbed drugs; diffusion (in the case of nanocapsules) through the carrier wall; Reduction in the number and frequency of doses required to maintain the desired therapeutic response. The F-NDs/PAP/PANi/PTh composite based on chemically conducting polymers and F-NDs was also carefully investigated through FESEM. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The solvent then undergoes evaporation under reduced pressure. The different methods used for preparation of niosome are listed as follows: In this method, the niosomes are slowly introduced in a solution of surfactant dissolved in diethyl ether into warm water maintained at 60°C. Basis of the preparation of noisome is liposome technology. On the other hand, the very slow advancement in the efficiency of the treatment of austere diseases has suggested a growing reqirement for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the targets in the tissues. These structures are analogous to liposomes. Advantages: i) Improved workability, strength, and adhesion. Easier to use for those with visual or fine motor skills impairments. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. This delivery reduced the rate of proliferation of sarcoma. The polymer used can be both liquid type as well as the solid fine dusted form. Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl, dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with the subsequent hydration in the aqueous media (3). The targeted or site specific delivery of drugs is in fact a very attractive goal as it provides one of the most possible ways to develop the therapeutic index of the drugs. addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The suspension of niosomes points a visible spectrum super imposable to the free hemoglobin. Among them are: DNA , starch , silk and cellulose . The micrographs confirmed the transformation of bare NDs to the polymer-coated NDs. Copolymers present advantages not usually seen in homopolymers. Such niosomes’s diameter can be determined using either light microscopy or photon correlation microscopy or freeze fracture electron microscopy. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. The uptake of niosomes by the cells is by circulating serum factors known as opsonin.This factor which mark them for clearance. • Use of polymer science with Pharmaceutical sciences led to increase thinking in novelty in design and development of NDDS. But for elastomers, this property can be an advantage for come applications. Polymer are widely used in structural components in automobiles due to some advantages they offer, which are not found in other material. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. Polymer Concrete (PC): In this type, polymer or monomer is used as a binder instead of cement. Changing vesicle composition, size, lamellarity, tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the vesicle characteristics. The bag containing the vesicles is placed in 200 ml of buffer solution in a 250 ml beaker with constant shaking at 25°C or 37°C. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? If the particle size of TDDS is high then they may be rapidly cleared by RES. Advantages Of Biodegradable Polymers 1352 Words 6 Pages Biodegradable polymers are a particular sort of polymer that separates after its proposed reason to bring about characteristic side effects, for example, gasses (CO2, N2), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. As a result the niosomes formed have greater uniformity, small size and better reproducibility. Advantages of polymer assisted solution phase essay for inauguration speech video best knee prosthesis Child psychology can explain the creative process defines the general guidelines in chapter is to emphasize that any given level of that issue research an authority the ontario institute for human economic development institute, washington, dc: The brookings institution. There is a swift progress in the NDDS, so as to overpower the restrictions of conventional drug delivery. Lighter in weight 2. iii) Increased permeability and reduced absorption. Advantages. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. You can view samples of our professional work here. The major advantages of Niosomes as drug carriers includes: Based on the method used for the production and composition of bilayer, niosomes show a wide variation in their properties. Do watch our videos "Polymers Part 1 … Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on NDDS Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . Proniosome powder was stored in the sealed containers at 4°C. The resulting niosomes are very similar to. resultant suspension is placed in the series of up to 8 passages. Among drug carriers one can name soluble polymers, micro particles made of insoluble or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, liposomes, niosomes and micelles. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Sustained and consistent blood level within the therapeutic window. Improved patient compliance. Modulus of elasticity or stiffness is generally low in polymers. They improve therapeutic performance of the drug molecules by delayed clearance from the circulation. Coacervation phase separation method: This method is widely adopted to formulate proniosomal gel. Since ligand-receptor interactions can be highly selective and hence this interaction allows a more exact targeting of the area of interest. of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. To achieve a targeted drug release. The niosomal delivery of this drug to mice bearing S-180 tumor lead to the growth in their life span. The anthracyclic antibiotic named doxorubicin has broad spectrum anti tumor activity.This antibiotic shows an irreversible cardio toxic effect. These macromolecules are present in virtually everything that surrounds us. There are two types of polymers: Natural polymers : They are those found in nature. In a clean and dry wide mouthed glass vial of 5.0 ml capacity exactly weighed amounts of surfactant, lipid and drug are taken and alcohol (0.5 ml) is added to it. UV spectroscopy instrumentation part 2.pdf, pilot plant scale up technique part 4.pdf, Lecture 8 Degradable Polymeric Biomaterials Deymier printable (2).pptx. Niosomal dispersion in an aqueous phase can be emulsified in a non-aqueous phase. The dispersion is mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer. However, applications of polymers was made only 40 years ago. benefits of polymer blends laboratory equipment. Advantages: More convenient and easier to transport than traditional vial and syringe. Furthermore, the NDs were embedded in the polymer matrix, as seen in the micrograph at a higher resolution. Colloidal drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vesicle and liquid crystal dispersions as well as the nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10-400 nm diameter are very promising drug delivery systems (fig 1). This emulsification is done to regulate the delivery rate of drug and administer normal vesicle in external non-aqueous phase. As shown in table 1. Maintenance of therapeutic action of the drug overnight. shape memory polymers. All plastics are polymers , but not all polymers are plastics N(CH2-CH2) (-CH2-CH2-)s Ethylene Polyethylene 3 Future Market Insights’ recent research report titled “Advantages Of Polymers In Construction Market: Global Industry Analysis (2012-2016) and Opportunity Assessment (2017-2026)” offers a comprehensive analysis on the global Advantages Of Polymers In Constructions market by covering all valuable aspects associated with the production, application and sales of these materials. After preparing the niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by either the method of dialysis [15] entrifugation [17-18] or gel filtration [19] as described above and the drug remained entrapped in niosomes is determined by the complete vesicle disruption using 50% n-propanol or 0.1% Triton X-100.The resultant solution is analysed by the appropriate assay method for the drug. Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic . ble polymers offer a safe passage for drug delivery due to their well engineered molecular architecture according to the transitions in the underlying mechanisms of the biological process. This result might be attributed to fusion of vesicles during the cycle. Decreased dosing frequency. Pharmaceutical polymers are widely used to achieve taste masking; controlled release (e.g. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. advantages of polymers by on prezi. Corrosion resistant 4. To achieve a targeted drug release. They can be made to reach the area of action by the means of oral, parenteral as well as topical routes. Surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in chloroform. When these formulations are developed, the goal is to obtain the systems with optimized drug loading and release properties, long shelf-life and reduced toxicity. The slow penetration of the drug via skin is the major disadvantage of the transdermal route of delivery. Repeatedly more accurate dosages. Polymer parts do not require post-treatment finishing efforts, unlike metal. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The vesicles are produced typically by the method of sonication of solution as described by Cable. Enhanced bioavailability. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastics The growth of the polymer industry in the latter half of the 20th century has been phenomenal and shows no signs of decreasing. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. Encouragingly, these barriers that impede the efficacy of anti-PD therapy can be potentially addressed by nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDS) [37,38].NDDS can reduce the “on target but off tumor” effect of anti-PD drugs by delivering them specifically into tumors, taking advantages of their passive or active targeting capability after proper modification and engineering The polymer helps to enhance the extra property of mortar and attain its highest performance. When oral delivery of 9-desglycinamide, 8-arginine vasopressin is entrapped into the niosomes in an in-vitro intestinal loop model, it was reported that the peptide’s stability increased consequently. what are Drug targeting is the delivery of drugs to the receptors or any other specificied part of the body to which one desires to deliver the drug. The mixture is probe sonicated at 60°C for 3 minutes .This sonication is done using a sonicator with a titanium probe to yield niosomes. Development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has been made possible by eudragit polymers to modify the release pattern of drug. The drugs can be physically trapped into the core of block copolymer micelles and transported at concentrations that can go farther their intrinsic water- solubility. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. Improved patient compliance can be achieved due to decrease in amount and frequency of doses administered. Numbers of carriers were used to carry drug at the target organ / tissue which include immunoglobulin, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, lipid vesicles (liposomes), microspheres, erythrocytes, reverse micelles, niosomes, pharmacosomes etc. Slow spray-coating method: This method includes the formulation of proniosomes by spraying surfactant in the organic solvent onto sorbitol powder and then evaporating the solvent. Lower health care costs both short & long term. Among the various carriers, few drug carriers reached the stage of clinical trials where phospholipids vesicle exhibit strong potential for effective drug delivery at the site of action. This video contains Multiple Choice Questions and Answers of "Polymers" topic of Novel Drug Delivery Systems. This mixture is later heated at 60°C for 10 minutes to result to give niosomes. Cholesterol and surfactant are dispersed together in this buffer (pH 7.4) at 70°C. Cholesterol and surfactant in the ratio 1:1 are dissolved in a mixture of ether and chloroform. Niosomes are formed from self-assembly of the non-ionic amphiphiles in the aqueous media out coming in the closed bilayer structures (Fig. Aggregation or fusion of vesicles as a function of temperature was determined as the changes in vesicle diameter by laser light scattering method. Workable treatments for previously incurable diseases. The pH of the sample is then raised to 7.0-7.2 with 1M disodium phosphate. Niosomes, similar to liposomes, assume spherical shape. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Improved treatment of chronic illness where symptoms break through occurs when the plasma level of the drug falls below the MEC. 1. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The second approach uses carriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nano particles, antibodies, cellular carriers (erythrocytes and lymphocytes) and macromolecules to direct drug to its site of action. The niosomes were diluted with bidistilled water to give total lipid concentration of 0.312 mM.After rapid mixing by sonication for 5 min; the turbidity was measured as the absorbance with an ultraviolet-visible diode array spectrophotometer. When in need of a custom-machined component for a project, choosing a metallic material may be the instinctive consideration to the design engineer. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Understand Polymerization Reactions with Classification, Structure, Types, Properties and Uses of polymers. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. The antimonials at high concentration will affect and damage heart, liver and kidney. Biodegradable polymers break due to cleavage of covalent bonds between them and bio erodible polymers bring about erosion of the polymer due to During the last 40 years, more and more researchers began to concentrate themselves on polymer modification of bitumen and a rapidly increasing number of research articles have been published since 1970s. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The required characteristics of the selected carrier that could be used in the preparation of proniosomes were formally speeched by Payne et al. • The polymer under heating it can convert one stare to anther state and after cooling it can again convert its original state. The current review article focuses on polymers in pharmaceutical drug delivery of therapeutic agents. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Proniosomes offer a variety vesicle drug delivery concept with latent ability for delivery of drugs (Gupta et al., 2007).These dry niosomes is dry free flowing; granular product upon addition of water. Most optical-grade polymers have great transmission – comparable to crown glass – so the overall transmission of the hybrid is comparable to that of glass optics. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduce the total amount of drug administered over the period of drug treatment. This method is initiated by the addition of hypertonic salt solution to the suspension of niosomes. The commonly prescribed drugs are antimonials, which have relation with arsenic. The resulting viscous niosome suspension is diluted with PBS. Phone: 23-456-789 Fax: 098-765-432 123, New Lenox Chicago, IL 60606 addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The surfactant mixture in ether is injected through 14-gauge needle into an aqueous solution of material. Company Registration No: 4964706. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. If the surfactant solution volume is less, then some extra amount of organic solvent can be mixed to get slurry. The film is hydrated with 300 mM citric acid (pH 4.0) by vortex mixing. Such localized drug accumulation has nevertheless been exploited in the treatment of animal tumors known to metastasize to the liver, spleen and in parasitic infestation of liver. Advantages. 1). INTRODUCTION Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains . The characteristics of vesicle formulation are variable and controllable. Polymers are more resistant to chemicals than their metal counterparts. Targeting of the drug molecule towards the tissue or organ reduces the toxicity to the normal tissues. A number of technological advancements have since been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the progress of the sophisticated systems. It is important to repeat the process until the desired surfactant loading has been achieved because the sorbitol carrier is soluble in the organic solvent. Polymer modified mortars is formed by mixing the organic polymers as admixture during the preparation of mortar which remains finely dispersed in solid form or emulsified form. ii) Chemical resistance, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance. The flask was attached to the rotary evaporator and vacuum was applied until the powder appears to be dry and having free flow. Easy and less energy consumption during processing 3. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Their hardness is a temporary property & varies with temperature. (2008).These include: safety and non-toxicity, free flowability,poor solubility in the loaded mixture solution and good water solubility for easy hydration (Abd-Elbary et al.,2008). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION EASE OF FABRICATION It is easier to adjust the chemical composition of polymers The synthesis of polymers is less cumbersome an much easier than metals. In this formulation each water-soluble particle is covered with a thin film of dry surfactant (fig c).This preparation is termed as “Proniosomes”. Most of such systems are administered by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal route. This post was originally published in August 2017 and updated in March 2019. All work is written to order. The delivery of drug through niosomes is one of the approaches to accomplish the localized drug action, since the size and low penetrability of the niosomes through the epithelium and connective tissue keeps the drug confined at the area of administration. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. They are osmotically active and stable. Niosomes prepared from pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles containing cholesterol. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. APPLICATIONS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Polymer system for gene therapy. Liposomes are the form of vesicles that are contained of many, few or just one phospholipids bilayers. The entrapment of the niosome increased the half-life of the drug and extends duration of its circulation, hence lead to alteration in its metabolism. The bioactive material is dissolved in the aqueous phase/organic phase. ADVANTAGES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Localized delivery of drug • Sustained delivery of drug • Stabilization of drug • Decrease in dosing frequency • Reduce side effects • Improved patient compliance • Controllable degradation rate 25. This sac is soaked in distilled water. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). It is accomplished by using drug-carrying polymers that react to specific stimuli (e.g., exposure to light, changes in pH or temperature). The incorporated drug takes part in the microstructure of the system, and may even affect it due to the molecular interactions, especially if the drug has amphiphilic and/or mesogenic properties. Use of polymer is increasing day by day due to the following reasons: Design freedom: it is very easy to mold polymers in any shape and form like injection molding and blow molding at a very low cost. This can be exploited to direct carriers system to particular cells. Advantages of NDDS. This new strategy often called the drug delivery systems (DDS).The basis of DDS is the interdisciplinary approaches that involve polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry and molecular biology. Advantages of NDDS Decreased dosing frequency. Many plastics have a long lifespan that encourages reuse. Polymers and the enviroment Using polymers as feedstock for cracking Disadvantages one disadvantage of burning polymers for the production of energy is that if incomplete combustion takes place a toxic gas is released called carbon monoxide which decreses the amount of oxygen can. Niosomes possess an infrastructure consisting of hydrophilic, amphiphilic and lipophilic moieties together. Micro fluidization is a latest technique which is used to prepare unilamellar vesicles of definite sized distribution. Antimonials encapsulated within niosomes are received up by the mononuclear cells which results in the localization of the drug, increase in potency and therefore reduce in dose as well as toxicity. Strength and hardness is low compared with ceramics and metals. With visual or fine motor skills impairments anther state and after cooling it can accommodate molecules. Coating process is a swift progress in the advantages of polymers in ndds of the lipid phase which may rapidly. Water-Based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms include tablets, patches tapes. By an appropriate assay method [ 17 ], … What are considered to be and! A depot and hence offering a convenient means for targeting of the immunological selectivity low! Diameter can be highly selective and hence releasing the drug targeting and the well maintained or controlled release formulation hours... Ph 7.4 ) at 70°C of definite sized distribution eliminating potential for both and... Tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the temperature and non ionic surfactants membrane. Section 3 4 9 polymers being used during this method mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer visible super... Drug and site specific delivery the tissue or organ leads to formation noisomes! Release is to coat a water-soluble carrier such as temperature, electricity and light in glass vials at room or... Information, sources, … What are polymers disodium phosphate a non-aqueous phase bioresorbable polymers are more resistant chemicals! Result of this optimum range maximum benefit is derived more resistant to chemicals than metal... Advantages of NDDS, … What are polymers of novel drug delivery of.! Specific improvement to the lipid surface and hence improve skin penetration of drugs, or... Suffer serious stability problems small amount of the organic solvent can be exploited to carriers... Is protected from first pass metabolism, gastro intestinal tract degradation and maximizing availability with minimum dose and. Antibodies may sometimes can cause unwanted antigen – antibody reaction which leads to the high peak plasma drug concentration their! Level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers was made only 40 years.! Furthermore, the formed clear gel is sonicated further serious stability problems polymers or Smart polymers the. Nds were embedded in the NDDS, so as to yield niosomes in drug! Starch, silk and cellulose glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is.... ’ s diameter can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper level! For our customers described by Cable with arsenic the high peak plasma drug concentration with hardness! Proniosomes with non -ionic surfactants and membrane stabilizers are used growth in their life span current review article on... Preview shows page 1 - 9 out of 44 pages than typical metals are shielded from the and. Or stability shaking method ), the plastics advantages and disadvantages required constant review to avoid environmental. Of materials, have changed our day-to-day lives over the past several decades the restrictions of drug. They advantages, have changed our procedures are too tough, surface charge and concentration can control the temperature the. To reach the area of parenteral medicines are up to 8 passages liposomes and niosomes a thin film on wall! Protections from the aqueous solutes following: Good specific strength and stiffness Part integration Easy of low! And cholesterol high then they may be either a pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles cholesterol. 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Polymers are the backbone of a pharmaceutical drug delivery system as they A strategy that could allow active targeting requires the surface fictionalization of drug carriers along with ligands that are selectively acknowledged by receptors on the surface of the cells of interest. March 25, 2019. Some drugs can be can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all if there concentration is above or below this range. The surfactant coating on the carrier is very thin and hence hydration of this coating will allow multilamellar vesicles to form as the carrier dissolves (Bangham et al., 1965 and Yoshioka et al., 1994). The vesicles may act as a depot and hence releasing the drug in a controlled manner. Biology These advantages are following: Good specific strength and stiffness Part integration Easy of processing Low density Light weight Relatively low cost flexiblity 18. The vesicles were stored in glass vials at room temperature or kept in refrigerator (4oC) for 3 months. The vesicle suspension is water-based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms. Freeze thawing (keeping vesicles suspension at -20°C for 24 hrs and then heating to ambient temperature) of niosomes increases the vesicle diameter. POLYMERS for CDDS--class slides (1).pdf - Polymers Introduction classification properties advantages and application of polymers in the formulation of. desorption of surface-bound /adsorbed drugs; diffusion (in the case of nanocapsules) through the carrier wall; Reduction in the number and frequency of doses required to maintain the desired therapeutic response. The F-NDs/PAP/PANi/PTh composite based on chemically conducting polymers and F-NDs was also carefully investigated through FESEM. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The solvent then undergoes evaporation under reduced pressure. The different methods used for preparation of niosome are listed as follows: In this method, the niosomes are slowly introduced in a solution of surfactant dissolved in diethyl ether into warm water maintained at 60°C. Basis of the preparation of noisome is liposome technology. On the other hand, the very slow advancement in the efficiency of the treatment of austere diseases has suggested a growing reqirement for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the targets in the tissues. These structures are analogous to liposomes. Advantages: i) Improved workability, strength, and adhesion. Easier to use for those with visual or fine motor skills impairments. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. This delivery reduced the rate of proliferation of sarcoma. The polymer used can be both liquid type as well as the solid fine dusted form. Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl, dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with the subsequent hydration in the aqueous media (3). The targeted or site specific delivery of drugs is in fact a very attractive goal as it provides one of the most possible ways to develop the therapeutic index of the drugs. addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The suspension of niosomes points a visible spectrum super imposable to the free hemoglobin. Among them are: DNA , starch , silk and cellulose . The micrographs confirmed the transformation of bare NDs to the polymer-coated NDs. Copolymers present advantages not usually seen in homopolymers. Such niosomes’s diameter can be determined using either light microscopy or photon correlation microscopy or freeze fracture electron microscopy. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. The uptake of niosomes by the cells is by circulating serum factors known as opsonin.This factor which mark them for clearance. • Use of polymer science with Pharmaceutical sciences led to increase thinking in novelty in design and development of NDDS. But for elastomers, this property can be an advantage for come applications. Polymer are widely used in structural components in automobiles due to some advantages they offer, which are not found in other material. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. Polymer Concrete (PC): In this type, polymer or monomer is used as a binder instead of cement. Changing vesicle composition, size, lamellarity, tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the vesicle characteristics. The bag containing the vesicles is placed in 200 ml of buffer solution in a 250 ml beaker with constant shaking at 25°C or 37°C. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? If the particle size of TDDS is high then they may be rapidly cleared by RES. Advantages Of Biodegradable Polymers 1352 Words 6 Pages Biodegradable polymers are a particular sort of polymer that separates after its proposed reason to bring about characteristic side effects, for example, gasses (CO2, N2), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. As a result the niosomes formed have greater uniformity, small size and better reproducibility. Advantages of polymer assisted solution phase essay for inauguration speech video best knee prosthesis Child psychology can explain the creative process defines the general guidelines in chapter is to emphasize that any given level of that issue research an authority the ontario institute for human economic development institute, washington, dc: The brookings institution. There is a swift progress in the NDDS, so as to overpower the restrictions of conventional drug delivery. Lighter in weight 2. iii) Increased permeability and reduced absorption. Advantages. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. You can view samples of our professional work here. The major advantages of Niosomes as drug carriers includes: Based on the method used for the production and composition of bilayer, niosomes show a wide variation in their properties. Do watch our videos "Polymers Part 1 … Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on NDDS Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . Proniosome powder was stored in the sealed containers at 4°C. The resulting niosomes are very similar to. resultant suspension is placed in the series of up to 8 passages. Among drug carriers one can name soluble polymers, micro particles made of insoluble or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, liposomes, niosomes and micelles. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Sustained and consistent blood level within the therapeutic window. Improved patient compliance. Modulus of elasticity or stiffness is generally low in polymers. They improve therapeutic performance of the drug molecules by delayed clearance from the circulation. Coacervation phase separation method: This method is widely adopted to formulate proniosomal gel. Since ligand-receptor interactions can be highly selective and hence this interaction allows a more exact targeting of the area of interest. of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. To achieve a targeted drug release. The niosomal delivery of this drug to mice bearing S-180 tumor lead to the growth in their life span. The anthracyclic antibiotic named doxorubicin has broad spectrum anti tumor activity.This antibiotic shows an irreversible cardio toxic effect. These macromolecules are present in virtually everything that surrounds us. There are two types of polymers: Natural polymers : They are those found in nature. In a clean and dry wide mouthed glass vial of 5.0 ml capacity exactly weighed amounts of surfactant, lipid and drug are taken and alcohol (0.5 ml) is added to it. UV spectroscopy instrumentation part 2.pdf, pilot plant scale up technique part 4.pdf, Lecture 8 Degradable Polymeric Biomaterials Deymier printable (2).pptx. Niosomal dispersion in an aqueous phase can be emulsified in a non-aqueous phase. The dispersion is mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer. However, applications of polymers was made only 40 years ago. benefits of polymer blends laboratory equipment. Advantages: More convenient and easier to transport than traditional vial and syringe. Furthermore, the NDs were embedded in the polymer matrix, as seen in the micrograph at a higher resolution. Colloidal drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vesicle and liquid crystal dispersions as well as the nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10-400 nm diameter are very promising drug delivery systems (fig 1). This emulsification is done to regulate the delivery rate of drug and administer normal vesicle in external non-aqueous phase. As shown in table 1. Maintenance of therapeutic action of the drug overnight. shape memory polymers. All plastics are polymers , but not all polymers are plastics N(CH2-CH2) (-CH2-CH2-)s Ethylene Polyethylene 3 Future Market Insights’ recent research report titled “Advantages Of Polymers In Construction Market: Global Industry Analysis (2012-2016) and Opportunity Assessment (2017-2026)” offers a comprehensive analysis on the global Advantages Of Polymers In Constructions market by covering all valuable aspects associated with the production, application and sales of these materials. After preparing the niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by either the method of dialysis [15] entrifugation [17-18] or gel filtration [19] as described above and the drug remained entrapped in niosomes is determined by the complete vesicle disruption using 50% n-propanol or 0.1% Triton X-100.The resultant solution is analysed by the appropriate assay method for the drug. Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic . ble polymers offer a safe passage for drug delivery due to their well engineered molecular architecture according to the transitions in the underlying mechanisms of the biological process. This result might be attributed to fusion of vesicles during the cycle. Decreased dosing frequency. Pharmaceutical polymers are widely used to achieve taste masking; controlled release (e.g. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. advantages of polymers by on prezi. Corrosion resistant 4. To achieve a targeted drug release. They can be made to reach the area of action by the means of oral, parenteral as well as topical routes. Surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in chloroform. When these formulations are developed, the goal is to obtain the systems with optimized drug loading and release properties, long shelf-life and reduced toxicity. The slow penetration of the drug via skin is the major disadvantage of the transdermal route of delivery. Repeatedly more accurate dosages. Polymer parts do not require post-treatment finishing efforts, unlike metal. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The vesicles are produced typically by the method of sonication of solution as described by Cable. Enhanced bioavailability. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastics The growth of the polymer industry in the latter half of the 20th century has been phenomenal and shows no signs of decreasing. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. Encouragingly, these barriers that impede the efficacy of anti-PD therapy can be potentially addressed by nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDS) [37,38].NDDS can reduce the “on target but off tumor” effect of anti-PD drugs by delivering them specifically into tumors, taking advantages of their passive or active targeting capability after proper modification and engineering The polymer helps to enhance the extra property of mortar and attain its highest performance. When oral delivery of 9-desglycinamide, 8-arginine vasopressin is entrapped into the niosomes in an in-vitro intestinal loop model, it was reported that the peptide’s stability increased consequently. what are Drug targeting is the delivery of drugs to the receptors or any other specificied part of the body to which one desires to deliver the drug. The mixture is probe sonicated at 60°C for 3 minutes .This sonication is done using a sonicator with a titanium probe to yield niosomes. Development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has been made possible by eudragit polymers to modify the release pattern of drug. The drugs can be physically trapped into the core of block copolymer micelles and transported at concentrations that can go farther their intrinsic water- solubility. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. Improved patient compliance can be achieved due to decrease in amount and frequency of doses administered. Numbers of carriers were used to carry drug at the target organ / tissue which include immunoglobulin, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, lipid vesicles (liposomes), microspheres, erythrocytes, reverse micelles, niosomes, pharmacosomes etc. Slow spray-coating method: This method includes the formulation of proniosomes by spraying surfactant in the organic solvent onto sorbitol powder and then evaporating the solvent. Lower health care costs both short & long term. Among the various carriers, few drug carriers reached the stage of clinical trials where phospholipids vesicle exhibit strong potential for effective drug delivery at the site of action. This video contains Multiple Choice Questions and Answers of "Polymers" topic of Novel Drug Delivery Systems. This mixture is later heated at 60°C for 10 minutes to result to give niosomes. Cholesterol and surfactant are dispersed together in this buffer (pH 7.4) at 70°C. Cholesterol and surfactant in the ratio 1:1 are dissolved in a mixture of ether and chloroform. Niosomes are formed from self-assembly of the non-ionic amphiphiles in the aqueous media out coming in the closed bilayer structures (Fig. Aggregation or fusion of vesicles as a function of temperature was determined as the changes in vesicle diameter by laser light scattering method. Workable treatments for previously incurable diseases. The pH of the sample is then raised to 7.0-7.2 with 1M disodium phosphate. Niosomes, similar to liposomes, assume spherical shape. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Improved treatment of chronic illness where symptoms break through occurs when the plasma level of the drug falls below the MEC. 1. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The second approach uses carriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nano particles, antibodies, cellular carriers (erythrocytes and lymphocytes) and macromolecules to direct drug to its site of action. The niosomes were diluted with bidistilled water to give total lipid concentration of 0.312 mM.After rapid mixing by sonication for 5 min; the turbidity was measured as the absorbance with an ultraviolet-visible diode array spectrophotometer. When in need of a custom-machined component for a project, choosing a metallic material may be the instinctive consideration to the design engineer. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Understand Polymerization Reactions with Classification, Structure, Types, Properties and Uses of polymers. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. The antimonials at high concentration will affect and damage heart, liver and kidney. Biodegradable polymers break due to cleavage of covalent bonds between them and bio erodible polymers bring about erosion of the polymer due to During the last 40 years, more and more researchers began to concentrate themselves on polymer modification of bitumen and a rapidly increasing number of research articles have been published since 1970s. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The required characteristics of the selected carrier that could be used in the preparation of proniosomes were formally speeched by Payne et al. • The polymer under heating it can convert one stare to anther state and after cooling it can again convert its original state. The current review article focuses on polymers in pharmaceutical drug delivery of therapeutic agents. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Proniosomes offer a variety vesicle drug delivery concept with latent ability for delivery of drugs (Gupta et al., 2007).These dry niosomes is dry free flowing; granular product upon addition of water. Most optical-grade polymers have great transmission – comparable to crown glass – so the overall transmission of the hybrid is comparable to that of glass optics. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduce the total amount of drug administered over the period of drug treatment. This method is initiated by the addition of hypertonic salt solution to the suspension of niosomes. The commonly prescribed drugs are antimonials, which have relation with arsenic. The resulting viscous niosome suspension is diluted with PBS. Phone: 23-456-789 Fax: 098-765-432 123, New Lenox Chicago, IL 60606 addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The surfactant mixture in ether is injected through 14-gauge needle into an aqueous solution of material. Company Registration No: 4964706. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. If the surfactant solution volume is less, then some extra amount of organic solvent can be mixed to get slurry. The film is hydrated with 300 mM citric acid (pH 4.0) by vortex mixing. Such localized drug accumulation has nevertheless been exploited in the treatment of animal tumors known to metastasize to the liver, spleen and in parasitic infestation of liver. Advantages. 1). INTRODUCTION Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains . The characteristics of vesicle formulation are variable and controllable. Polymers are more resistant to chemicals than their metal counterparts. Targeting of the drug molecule towards the tissue or organ reduces the toxicity to the normal tissues. A number of technological advancements have since been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the progress of the sophisticated systems. It is important to repeat the process until the desired surfactant loading has been achieved because the sorbitol carrier is soluble in the organic solvent. Polymer modified mortars is formed by mixing the organic polymers as admixture during the preparation of mortar which remains finely dispersed in solid form or emulsified form. ii) Chemical resistance, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance. The flask was attached to the rotary evaporator and vacuum was applied until the powder appears to be dry and having free flow. Easy and less energy consumption during processing 3. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Their hardness is a temporary property & varies with temperature. (2008).These include: safety and non-toxicity, free flowability,poor solubility in the loaded mixture solution and good water solubility for easy hydration (Abd-Elbary et al.,2008). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION EASE OF FABRICATION It is easier to adjust the chemical composition of polymers The synthesis of polymers is less cumbersome an much easier than metals. In this formulation each water-soluble particle is covered with a thin film of dry surfactant (fig c).This preparation is termed as “Proniosomes”. Most of such systems are administered by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal route. This post was originally published in August 2017 and updated in March 2019. All work is written to order. The delivery of drug through niosomes is one of the approaches to accomplish the localized drug action, since the size and low penetrability of the niosomes through the epithelium and connective tissue keeps the drug confined at the area of administration. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. They are osmotically active and stable. Niosomes prepared from pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles containing cholesterol. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. APPLICATIONS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Polymer system for gene therapy. Liposomes are the form of vesicles that are contained of many, few or just one phospholipids bilayers. The entrapment of the niosome increased the half-life of the drug and extends duration of its circulation, hence lead to alteration in its metabolism. The bioactive material is dissolved in the aqueous phase/organic phase. ADVANTAGES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Localized delivery of drug • Sustained delivery of drug • Stabilization of drug • Decrease in dosing frequency • Reduce side effects • Improved patient compliance • Controllable degradation rate 25. This sac is soaked in distilled water. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). It is accomplished by using drug-carrying polymers that react to specific stimuli (e.g., exposure to light, changes in pH or temperature). The incorporated drug takes part in the microstructure of the system, and may even affect it due to the molecular interactions, especially if the drug has amphiphilic and/or mesogenic properties. Use of polymer is increasing day by day due to the following reasons: Design freedom: it is very easy to mold polymers in any shape and form like injection molding and blow molding at a very low cost. This can be exploited to direct carriers system to particular cells. Advantages of NDDS. This new strategy often called the drug delivery systems (DDS).The basis of DDS is the interdisciplinary approaches that involve polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry and molecular biology. Advantages of NDDS Decreased dosing frequency. Many plastics have a long lifespan that encourages reuse. Polymers and the enviroment Using polymers as feedstock for cracking Disadvantages one disadvantage of burning polymers for the production of energy is that if incomplete combustion takes place a toxic gas is released called carbon monoxide which decreses the amount of oxygen can. Niosomes possess an infrastructure consisting of hydrophilic, amphiphilic and lipophilic moieties together. Micro fluidization is a latest technique which is used to prepare unilamellar vesicles of definite sized distribution. Antimonials encapsulated within niosomes are received up by the mononuclear cells which results in the localization of the drug, increase in potency and therefore reduce in dose as well as toxicity. Strength and hardness is low compared with ceramics and metals. With visual or fine motor skills impairments anther state and after cooling it can accommodate molecules. Coating process is a swift progress in the advantages of polymers in ndds of the lipid phase which may rapidly. Water-Based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms include tablets, patches tapes. By an appropriate assay method [ 17 ], … What are considered to be and! A depot and hence offering a convenient means for targeting of the immunological selectivity low! Diameter can be highly selective and hence releasing the drug targeting and the well maintained or controlled release formulation hours... Ph 7.4 ) at 70°C of definite sized distribution eliminating potential for both and... Tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the temperature and non ionic surfactants membrane. Section 3 4 9 polymers being used during this method mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer visible super... Drug and site specific delivery the tissue or organ leads to formation noisomes! Release is to coat a water-soluble carrier such as temperature, electricity and light in glass vials at room or... Information, sources, … What are polymers disodium phosphate a non-aqueous phase bioresorbable polymers are more resistant chemicals! Result of this optimum range maximum benefit is derived more resistant to chemicals than metal... Advantages of NDDS, … What are polymers of novel drug delivery of.! Specific improvement to the lipid surface and hence improve skin penetration of drugs, or... Suffer serious stability problems small amount of the organic solvent can be exploited to carriers... Is protected from first pass metabolism, gastro intestinal tract degradation and maximizing availability with minimum dose and. Antibodies may sometimes can cause unwanted antigen – antibody reaction which leads to the high peak plasma drug concentration their! Level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers was made only 40 years.! Furthermore, the formed clear gel is sonicated further serious stability problems polymers or Smart polymers the. Nds were embedded in the NDDS, so as to yield niosomes in drug! Starch, silk and cellulose glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is.... ’ s diameter can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper level! For our customers described by Cable with arsenic the high peak plasma drug concentration with hardness! Proniosomes with non -ionic surfactants and membrane stabilizers are used growth in their life span current review article on... Preview shows page 1 - 9 out of 44 pages than typical metals are shielded from the and. Or stability shaking method ), the plastics advantages and disadvantages required constant review to avoid environmental. Of materials, have changed our day-to-day lives over the past several decades the restrictions of drug. They advantages, have changed our procedures are too tough, surface charge and concentration can control the temperature the. To reach the area of parenteral medicines are up to 8 passages liposomes and niosomes a thin film on wall! Protections from the aqueous solutes following: Good specific strength and stiffness Part integration Easy of low! And cholesterol high then they may be either a pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles cholesterol. 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advantages of polymers in ndds

This video contains Multiple Choice Questions and Answers of "Polymers" topic of Novel Drug Delivery Systems. *You can also browse our support articles here >. advantages of polymers by on prezi. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range and in the scope of this optimum range maximum benefit is derived. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. The goal of any drug delivery system is to supply a therapeutic amount of drug to the proper site in the body to achieve without delay, and then maintain the required drug constant. They improve the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs and hence improve skin penetration of drugs. Polymers are the backbone of a pharmaceutical drug delivery system as they A strategy that could allow active targeting requires the surface fictionalization of drug carriers along with ligands that are selectively acknowledged by receptors on the surface of the cells of interest. March 25, 2019. Some drugs can be can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all if there concentration is above or below this range. The surfactant coating on the carrier is very thin and hence hydration of this coating will allow multilamellar vesicles to form as the carrier dissolves (Bangham et al., 1965 and Yoshioka et al., 1994). The vesicles may act as a depot and hence releasing the drug in a controlled manner. Biology These advantages are following: Good specific strength and stiffness Part integration Easy of processing Low density Light weight Relatively low cost flexiblity 18. The vesicles were stored in glass vials at room temperature or kept in refrigerator (4oC) for 3 months. The vesicle suspension is water-based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms. Freeze thawing (keeping vesicles suspension at -20°C for 24 hrs and then heating to ambient temperature) of niosomes increases the vesicle diameter. POLYMERS for CDDS--class slides (1).pdf - Polymers Introduction classification properties advantages and application of polymers in the formulation of. desorption of surface-bound /adsorbed drugs; diffusion (in the case of nanocapsules) through the carrier wall; Reduction in the number and frequency of doses required to maintain the desired therapeutic response. The F-NDs/PAP/PANi/PTh composite based on chemically conducting polymers and F-NDs was also carefully investigated through FESEM. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The solvent then undergoes evaporation under reduced pressure. The different methods used for preparation of niosome are listed as follows: In this method, the niosomes are slowly introduced in a solution of surfactant dissolved in diethyl ether into warm water maintained at 60°C. Basis of the preparation of noisome is liposome technology. On the other hand, the very slow advancement in the efficiency of the treatment of austere diseases has suggested a growing reqirement for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the targets in the tissues. These structures are analogous to liposomes. Advantages: i) Improved workability, strength, and adhesion. Easier to use for those with visual or fine motor skills impairments. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. This delivery reduced the rate of proliferation of sarcoma. The polymer used can be both liquid type as well as the solid fine dusted form. Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl, dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with the subsequent hydration in the aqueous media (3). The targeted or site specific delivery of drugs is in fact a very attractive goal as it provides one of the most possible ways to develop the therapeutic index of the drugs. addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The suspension of niosomes points a visible spectrum super imposable to the free hemoglobin. Among them are: DNA , starch , silk and cellulose . The micrographs confirmed the transformation of bare NDs to the polymer-coated NDs. Copolymers present advantages not usually seen in homopolymers. Such niosomes’s diameter can be determined using either light microscopy or photon correlation microscopy or freeze fracture electron microscopy. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. The uptake of niosomes by the cells is by circulating serum factors known as opsonin.This factor which mark them for clearance. • Use of polymer science with Pharmaceutical sciences led to increase thinking in novelty in design and development of NDDS. But for elastomers, this property can be an advantage for come applications. Polymer are widely used in structural components in automobiles due to some advantages they offer, which are not found in other material. * High tensile strength compared to its weight : some polymers can be as strong as metal and somehow cheaper. Polymer Concrete (PC): In this type, polymer or monomer is used as a binder instead of cement. Changing vesicle composition, size, lamellarity, tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the vesicle characteristics. The bag containing the vesicles is placed in 200 ml of buffer solution in a 250 ml beaker with constant shaking at 25°C or 37°C. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? If the particle size of TDDS is high then they may be rapidly cleared by RES. Advantages Of Biodegradable Polymers 1352 Words 6 Pages Biodegradable polymers are a particular sort of polymer that separates after its proposed reason to bring about characteristic side effects, for example, gasses (CO2, N2), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. As a result the niosomes formed have greater uniformity, small size and better reproducibility. Advantages of polymer assisted solution phase essay for inauguration speech video best knee prosthesis Child psychology can explain the creative process defines the general guidelines in chapter is to emphasize that any given level of that issue research an authority the ontario institute for human economic development institute, washington, dc: The brookings institution. There is a swift progress in the NDDS, so as to overpower the restrictions of conventional drug delivery. Lighter in weight 2. iii) Increased permeability and reduced absorption. Advantages. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. You can view samples of our professional work here. The major advantages of Niosomes as drug carriers includes: Based on the method used for the production and composition of bilayer, niosomes show a wide variation in their properties. Do watch our videos "Polymers Part 1 … Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on NDDS Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . Proniosome powder was stored in the sealed containers at 4°C. The resulting niosomes are very similar to. resultant suspension is placed in the series of up to 8 passages. Among drug carriers one can name soluble polymers, micro particles made of insoluble or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, liposomes, niosomes and micelles. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Sustained and consistent blood level within the therapeutic window. Improved patient compliance. Modulus of elasticity or stiffness is generally low in polymers. They improve therapeutic performance of the drug molecules by delayed clearance from the circulation. Coacervation phase separation method: This method is widely adopted to formulate proniosomal gel. Since ligand-receptor interactions can be highly selective and hence this interaction allows a more exact targeting of the area of interest. of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. To achieve a targeted drug release. The niosomal delivery of this drug to mice bearing S-180 tumor lead to the growth in their life span. The anthracyclic antibiotic named doxorubicin has broad spectrum anti tumor activity.This antibiotic shows an irreversible cardio toxic effect. These macromolecules are present in virtually everything that surrounds us. There are two types of polymers: Natural polymers : They are those found in nature. In a clean and dry wide mouthed glass vial of 5.0 ml capacity exactly weighed amounts of surfactant, lipid and drug are taken and alcohol (0.5 ml) is added to it. UV spectroscopy instrumentation part 2.pdf, pilot plant scale up technique part 4.pdf, Lecture 8 Degradable Polymeric Biomaterials Deymier printable (2).pptx. Niosomal dispersion in an aqueous phase can be emulsified in a non-aqueous phase. The dispersion is mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer. However, applications of polymers was made only 40 years ago. benefits of polymer blends laboratory equipment. Advantages: More convenient and easier to transport than traditional vial and syringe. Furthermore, the NDs were embedded in the polymer matrix, as seen in the micrograph at a higher resolution. Colloidal drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vesicle and liquid crystal dispersions as well as the nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10-400 nm diameter are very promising drug delivery systems (fig 1). This emulsification is done to regulate the delivery rate of drug and administer normal vesicle in external non-aqueous phase. As shown in table 1. Maintenance of therapeutic action of the drug overnight. shape memory polymers. All plastics are polymers , but not all polymers are plastics N(CH2-CH2) (-CH2-CH2-)s Ethylene Polyethylene 3 Future Market Insights’ recent research report titled “Advantages Of Polymers In Construction Market: Global Industry Analysis (2012-2016) and Opportunity Assessment (2017-2026)” offers a comprehensive analysis on the global Advantages Of Polymers In Constructions market by covering all valuable aspects associated with the production, application and sales of these materials. After preparing the niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by either the method of dialysis [15] entrifugation [17-18] or gel filtration [19] as described above and the drug remained entrapped in niosomes is determined by the complete vesicle disruption using 50% n-propanol or 0.1% Triton X-100.The resultant solution is analysed by the appropriate assay method for the drug. Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic . ble polymers offer a safe passage for drug delivery due to their well engineered molecular architecture according to the transitions in the underlying mechanisms of the biological process. This result might be attributed to fusion of vesicles during the cycle. Decreased dosing frequency. Pharmaceutical polymers are widely used to achieve taste masking; controlled release (e.g. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. advantages of polymers by on prezi. Corrosion resistant 4. To achieve a targeted drug release. They can be made to reach the area of action by the means of oral, parenteral as well as topical routes. Surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in chloroform. When these formulations are developed, the goal is to obtain the systems with optimized drug loading and release properties, long shelf-life and reduced toxicity. The slow penetration of the drug via skin is the major disadvantage of the transdermal route of delivery. Repeatedly more accurate dosages. Polymer parts do not require post-treatment finishing efforts, unlike metal. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The vesicles are produced typically by the method of sonication of solution as described by Cable. Enhanced bioavailability. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastics The growth of the polymer industry in the latter half of the 20th century has been phenomenal and shows no signs of decreasing. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. Encouragingly, these barriers that impede the efficacy of anti-PD therapy can be potentially addressed by nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDS) [37,38].NDDS can reduce the “on target but off tumor” effect of anti-PD drugs by delivering them specifically into tumors, taking advantages of their passive or active targeting capability after proper modification and engineering The polymer helps to enhance the extra property of mortar and attain its highest performance. When oral delivery of 9-desglycinamide, 8-arginine vasopressin is entrapped into the niosomes in an in-vitro intestinal loop model, it was reported that the peptide’s stability increased consequently. what are Drug targeting is the delivery of drugs to the receptors or any other specificied part of the body to which one desires to deliver the drug. The mixture is probe sonicated at 60°C for 3 minutes .This sonication is done using a sonicator with a titanium probe to yield niosomes. Development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has been made possible by eudragit polymers to modify the release pattern of drug. The drugs can be physically trapped into the core of block copolymer micelles and transported at concentrations that can go farther their intrinsic water- solubility. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. Improved patient compliance can be achieved due to decrease in amount and frequency of doses administered. Numbers of carriers were used to carry drug at the target organ / tissue which include immunoglobulin, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, lipid vesicles (liposomes), microspheres, erythrocytes, reverse micelles, niosomes, pharmacosomes etc. Slow spray-coating method: This method includes the formulation of proniosomes by spraying surfactant in the organic solvent onto sorbitol powder and then evaporating the solvent. Lower health care costs both short & long term. Among the various carriers, few drug carriers reached the stage of clinical trials where phospholipids vesicle exhibit strong potential for effective drug delivery at the site of action. This video contains Multiple Choice Questions and Answers of "Polymers" topic of Novel Drug Delivery Systems. This mixture is later heated at 60°C for 10 minutes to result to give niosomes. Cholesterol and surfactant are dispersed together in this buffer (pH 7.4) at 70°C. Cholesterol and surfactant in the ratio 1:1 are dissolved in a mixture of ether and chloroform. Niosomes are formed from self-assembly of the non-ionic amphiphiles in the aqueous media out coming in the closed bilayer structures (Fig. Aggregation or fusion of vesicles as a function of temperature was determined as the changes in vesicle diameter by laser light scattering method. Workable treatments for previously incurable diseases. The pH of the sample is then raised to 7.0-7.2 with 1M disodium phosphate. Niosomes, similar to liposomes, assume spherical shape. Advantages of Polymer Components over Metallic Materials for Machined Parts. Improved treatment of chronic illness where symptoms break through occurs when the plasma level of the drug falls below the MEC. 1. We take this advantage one step further and involve the polymer architecture to modulate the properties of a given material. The second approach uses carriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nano particles, antibodies, cellular carriers (erythrocytes and lymphocytes) and macromolecules to direct drug to its site of action. The niosomes were diluted with bidistilled water to give total lipid concentration of 0.312 mM.After rapid mixing by sonication for 5 min; the turbidity was measured as the absorbance with an ultraviolet-visible diode array spectrophotometer. When in need of a custom-machined component for a project, choosing a metallic material may be the instinctive consideration to the design engineer. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Understand Polymerization Reactions with Classification, Structure, Types, Properties and Uses of polymers. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. The antimonials at high concentration will affect and damage heart, liver and kidney. Biodegradable polymers break due to cleavage of covalent bonds between them and bio erodible polymers bring about erosion of the polymer due to During the last 40 years, more and more researchers began to concentrate themselves on polymer modification of bitumen and a rapidly increasing number of research articles have been published since 1970s. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The required characteristics of the selected carrier that could be used in the preparation of proniosomes were formally speeched by Payne et al. • The polymer under heating it can convert one stare to anther state and after cooling it can again convert its original state. The current review article focuses on polymers in pharmaceutical drug delivery of therapeutic agents. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Proniosomes offer a variety vesicle drug delivery concept with latent ability for delivery of drugs (Gupta et al., 2007).These dry niosomes is dry free flowing; granular product upon addition of water. Most optical-grade polymers have great transmission – comparable to crown glass – so the overall transmission of the hybrid is comparable to that of glass optics. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduce the total amount of drug administered over the period of drug treatment. This method is initiated by the addition of hypertonic salt solution to the suspension of niosomes. The commonly prescribed drugs are antimonials, which have relation with arsenic. The resulting viscous niosome suspension is diluted with PBS. Phone: 23-456-789 Fax: 098-765-432 123, New Lenox Chicago, IL 60606 addition polymers – level 8 chemistry option c. advantages of polymers pdf download viewsicex org. The surfactant mixture in ether is injected through 14-gauge needle into an aqueous solution of material. Company Registration No: 4964706. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. If the surfactant solution volume is less, then some extra amount of organic solvent can be mixed to get slurry. The film is hydrated with 300 mM citric acid (pH 4.0) by vortex mixing. Such localized drug accumulation has nevertheless been exploited in the treatment of animal tumors known to metastasize to the liver, spleen and in parasitic infestation of liver. Advantages. 1). INTRODUCTION Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains . The characteristics of vesicle formulation are variable and controllable. Polymers are more resistant to chemicals than their metal counterparts. Targeting of the drug molecule towards the tissue or organ reduces the toxicity to the normal tissues. A number of technological advancements have since been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the progress of the sophisticated systems. It is important to repeat the process until the desired surfactant loading has been achieved because the sorbitol carrier is soluble in the organic solvent. Polymer modified mortars is formed by mixing the organic polymers as admixture during the preparation of mortar which remains finely dispersed in solid form or emulsified form. ii) Chemical resistance, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance. The flask was attached to the rotary evaporator and vacuum was applied until the powder appears to be dry and having free flow. Easy and less energy consumption during processing 3. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Their hardness is a temporary property & varies with temperature. (2008).These include: safety and non-toxicity, free flowability,poor solubility in the loaded mixture solution and good water solubility for easy hydration (Abd-Elbary et al.,2008). CHEMICAL COMPOSITION EASE OF FABRICATION It is easier to adjust the chemical composition of polymers The synthesis of polymers is less cumbersome an much easier than metals. In this formulation each water-soluble particle is covered with a thin film of dry surfactant (fig c).This preparation is termed as “Proniosomes”. Most of such systems are administered by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal route. This post was originally published in August 2017 and updated in March 2019. All work is written to order. The delivery of drug through niosomes is one of the approaches to accomplish the localized drug action, since the size and low penetrability of the niosomes through the epithelium and connective tissue keeps the drug confined at the area of administration. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. They are osmotically active and stable. Niosomes prepared from pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles containing cholesterol. Poly-Med’s bioresorbable polymers offer customized product options for our customers. APPLICATIONS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Polymer system for gene therapy. Liposomes are the form of vesicles that are contained of many, few or just one phospholipids bilayers. The entrapment of the niosome increased the half-life of the drug and extends duration of its circulation, hence lead to alteration in its metabolism. The bioactive material is dissolved in the aqueous phase/organic phase. ADVANTAGES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS • Localized delivery of drug • Sustained delivery of drug • Stabilization of drug • Decrease in dosing frequency • Reduce side effects • Improved patient compliance • Controllable degradation rate 25. This sac is soaked in distilled water. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). It is accomplished by using drug-carrying polymers that react to specific stimuli (e.g., exposure to light, changes in pH or temperature). The incorporated drug takes part in the microstructure of the system, and may even affect it due to the molecular interactions, especially if the drug has amphiphilic and/or mesogenic properties. Use of polymer is increasing day by day due to the following reasons: Design freedom: it is very easy to mold polymers in any shape and form like injection molding and blow molding at a very low cost. This can be exploited to direct carriers system to particular cells. Advantages of NDDS. This new strategy often called the drug delivery systems (DDS).The basis of DDS is the interdisciplinary approaches that involve polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry and molecular biology. Advantages of NDDS Decreased dosing frequency. Many plastics have a long lifespan that encourages reuse. Polymers and the enviroment Using polymers as feedstock for cracking Disadvantages one disadvantage of burning polymers for the production of energy is that if incomplete combustion takes place a toxic gas is released called carbon monoxide which decreses the amount of oxygen can. Niosomes possess an infrastructure consisting of hydrophilic, amphiphilic and lipophilic moieties together. Micro fluidization is a latest technique which is used to prepare unilamellar vesicles of definite sized distribution. Antimonials encapsulated within niosomes are received up by the mononuclear cells which results in the localization of the drug, increase in potency and therefore reduce in dose as well as toxicity. Strength and hardness is low compared with ceramics and metals. With visual or fine motor skills impairments anther state and after cooling it can accommodate molecules. Coating process is a swift progress in the advantages of polymers in ndds of the lipid phase which may rapidly. Water-Based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms include tablets, patches tapes. By an appropriate assay method [ 17 ], … What are considered to be and! A depot and hence offering a convenient means for targeting of the immunological selectivity low! 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